วันพุธที่ 22 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2557
The Lotus 39 was a single seat racing car produced by Team Lotus. It was originally intended for use in Formula One, to be powered by the Coventry Climax 1.5 litre flat-16 engine. But the engine never eventuated, so the chassis was modified by Maurice Philippe to accept a 2495 cc Coventry Climax FPF engine, which produced about 230 bhp (172 kW), and was used for the 1966 Tasman Series races in Australia and New Zealand. In the hands of Jim Clark, the 39 scored 1 win, 5 second places and 1 third place and Clark finished second in the series behind Jackie Stewart.
The car was then purchased by Leo Geoghegan who raced it in Australia and New Zealand from 1966 to 1970, replacing the Climax engine with a Repco V8 in 1967. Geoghegan also used it in Repco-powered form to win the 1969 Grand Prix of Japan.The car was then sold to Brian Power who put a 1.5 litre Ford engine in the car. It was later rescued and restored to Climax specification by John Dawson-Damer. It will be shortly offered for sale as part of Dawson-Damer's estate sell off of his Lotus collection.
The Lotus 38 was the first mid-engined car to win the Indianapolis 500, in 1965, driven by Jim Clark. It was run by Lotus at Indianapolis from 1965 to 1967; a total of 8 were built, most for use by Lotus, but several were sold for use by other drivers, including A. J. Foyt and Mario Andretti.
It was designed by Colin Chapman and Len Terry as Lotus' 1965 entry for the Indianapolis 500. It was an evolution of the previous Lotus 29 and Lotus 34 Indy designs, but this time with a full monocoque tub chassis; it was powered by the same four-cam Ford V8 fuel injected engine as used in the 34, giving out around 500 bhp. In all of them, the engine was mid-mounted, improving the weight distribution and giving it good handling. The 38 was significantly larger than Formula One cars of the time, but was dwarfed by the massive American roadsters.
The 38 was specially designed with an "offset" suspension, with the car body situated asymmetrically between the wheels, offset to the left using suspension arms of unequal length. Although in theory this was better suited for the ovals (which have only left turns), for example by evening out tyre wear between the two sides, in practise the handling was sufficiently idiosyncratic that the concept never caught on widely.
Lotus 38 being demonstrated by Jackie Stewart in 2010
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In the 1965 Indianapolis 500, Clark qualified on the first row, and race was a walkover for him, as he led all but 10 laps, and won with only four other cars on the lead lap, and the rest all at least 2 laps behind. It was payback for losing the race in 1963, when Clark felt that Parnelli Jones' oil spewing car should have been black flagged.
Lotus returned with the 38 in 1966 (when it conceded victory to Graham Hill in a Lola, after some confusion with the scoring due to an erroneous lap chart) and 1967 (when Clark retired early with a blown engine).
The 38 had proved that mid-engined cars could make the grade at the Brickyard, and the days of the front-engined roadsters were effectively over. Design elements in the 38 were eventually worked into the design of the legendary Lotus 49, and Foyt's early Coyotes (as well as a number of other contemporary Indy cars) were Lotus 38 clones.
วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 12 ธันวาคม พ.ศ. 2556
|Suspension (front)||Upper cantilever rocker arms and lower wishbones, with inboard mounted Armstrong coilover spring/dampers|
|Suspension (rear)||Upper transverse links and twin radius rods with reversed lower wishbone. Armstrong outboard coilover spring/dampers.|
|Engine||Coventry Climax FWMV|
1,497 cc (91 cu in), or
1,498 cc (91 cu in), or
1,909 cc (116 cu in)
V8 Naturally aspirated mid-mounted
|Transmission||ZF 5-speed manual|
|Notable entrants||Team Lotus|
Reg Parnell Racing
DW Racing Enterprises
|Notable drivers|| Jim Clark|
|Debut||1964 Aintree 200,|
The Lotus 33 was a Formula One car designed by Colin Chapman and built by Team Lotus. Its development was based on the earlier Lotus 25 model, taking the monocoque chassis design to new development heights. The 33 was again powered by the 1500 cc Climax engine. The 33 was almost identical to the 25, but had suspension designed around newer, wider tyres. The car was more rigid and was simpler to build than its predecessor.
Introduced for the 1965 season, Jim Clark took the 33 to victory in its first appearance at the South African Grand Prix before taking the car to four more wins to take his second world championship. Clark missed the Monaco Grand Prix (a race which he would never win) to race in the Indy 500, which he won.
Compared to the 25, the Climax engine had an increase in power (about 210 bhp (157 kW) - 220 bhp (164 kW) compared to the older Climaxes in the 25, which gave about 200 bhp). However the extra power sacrificed reliability, and Clark retired from the final 3 races of 1965, fortunately after he'd wrapped up the title. The 33 was pressed into service with a bored out 2 litre Climax V8 for the early races of 1966, until the 3 litre Lotus 43 was ready.
The 33 also met with success outside of the World Championship with Jim Clark winning the 1967 Tasman Series at the wheel of a Lotus 33 Climax.
A driveable, detailed virtual recreation of this famous Lotus model appeared around 2004 in the '1965 Mod' for the Grand Prix Legends pc-based F1 racing simulation.
วันพุธที่ 11 ธันวาคม พ.ศ. 2556
The Lotus 32 was a Formula 2 racing car built by Team Lotus in 1964. It was developed from the Lotus 27 Formula Junior model. Twelve cars were produced, but only four competed in the Ron Harris Team Lotus entrants (drivers Jim Clark and Mike Spence). Jim Clark drove the Lotus 32 to win the 1964 Formula 2 Championship. The whole new chassis of the 32 had aluminium monocoque with steel front and rear bulkhead and centre section to bring it up to weight. Suspension followed the usual Lotus practice; coil spring/damper units were mounted inboard at the front and outboard at the rear. The front wishbones were slightly wider-based while rear geometry had changed and there was full adjustability (unlike the Lotus 27). The Girling brakes were outboard all round.
The Lotus 32 Formula 2 car featured a Cosworth SCA 998 cc engine with twin 40DCM2 Weber carburettors, producing 115 bhp (86 kW) at 8700 rpm. The engine was canted over at an angle of 25 degrees in the chassis and was mated to a Hewland Mk IV five-speed gearbox.
At the end of the 1964 F2 season, Colin Chapman modified the car to a Lotus 32B (in picture). With a 2495 cc Climax engine, different suspension and wheels for Jim Clark to use in the 1965 Tasman Series, which he duly won. The car remained in New Zealand, being sold to Jim Palmer, who drove it to fourth in the following year's Tasman championship.
F2 races won: Pau Grand Prix - Eifelrennen Germany - Guards Trophy United Kingdom - Aintree 200 - Snetterton - Enna- Sicily
|Category||Group 4 Sports Car --see text|
|Designer(s)||Colin Chapman and Martin Wade|
|Suspension (front)||Double Wishbone, Outboard Coil/Spring Damper|
|Suspension (rear)||Double Wishbone, Outboard Coil/Spring Damper|
|Engine||Ford 4,727cc 289 cu in V8|
|Transmission||ZF 5 Speed Manual Synchromesh Limited Slip Differential|
|Notable entrants||Team Lotus|
|Notable drivers||Jim Clark|
The Lotus 30 was a racing automobile, Colin Chapman's first attempt at a large displacement sports car racing machine following the success of the smaller Lotus 19 and Lotus 23. In a way as a further development of the final Lotus 19 called Lotus 19B, which had a Ford V8 engine installed in place of Coventry Climax FPF, it was designed by Colin Chapman and Martin Wade, and built in 1964. Lotus 30 was raced in British races such as Guards Trophy, international races such as Nassau Speed Week that allowed FIA Group 4 "Sports Car" class of racing machines, and more importantly, in Can Am series. These were before the recognition and creation of Group 5, 6 and 7 categories by FIA in 1966. This explains why Lotus 30 and 40 (the latter was built in 1965) came originally equipped with headlights and a windshield wiper.
Notable were its curvaceous fibreglass body work and "pickle fork" backbone chassis first seen in the front engine Lotus Elan, in sharp contrast to Lotus 19's space frame design. On the 30, the layout was reversed and placed the engine behind the driver. Lotus engineer Len Terry was asked by Chapman to comment on the draft concept and considered it to be so flawed he refused to have anything to do with it. The Lotus 30 was powered by a 4.7 litre (289 c.i.) Ford V8 engine, the same type as used in the Ford GT40, mated to a 5 speed ZF syncromesh transaxle which was far more reliable than Colotti transaxle in 19B handling the V8 torque. It used 13 inch wheels and solid disc brakes on each wheel. The Lotus 30 was regarded as unsuccessful and / or dangerous but when everything was working and nothing broke the car was incredibly fast.
The inherent flaws of the engineering became evident as horse power requirements and tire technology of the period evolved and pushed the original design past its intended limits. The problems were mainly related to the torsional rigidity of the backbone chassis and materials available at the time, all of which resulted in chassis and suspension failures.
Jim Clark laboured long with the car, and managed to prize some promising results with it before it was replaced with the Lotus 40. Equipped with 15in wheels and vented disc brakes as well as a larger engine, the 40 was just as recalcitrant as the 30. The most telling comment about these Lotus race cars was made by the American driver Richie Ginther. When asked what he thought of the new Lotus 40, Ginther, a lugubrious Californian, said, "Same as the 30 but with ten more mistakes".
The effort was not a total loss as this chassis type proved to be perfectly acceptable for the lower powered Lotus Europa and was with development used on the Esprit series cars.
วันเสาร์ที่ 7 ธันวาคม พ.ศ. 2556
|Lotus Cortina Mk1|
|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door saloon|
|Related||Ford Cortina Mark I|
|Engine||1557 cc straight-4|
|Wheelbase||98 in (2,489 mm)|
|Length||168 in (4,267 mm)|
|Width||63 in (1,600 mm)|
|Height||54 in (1,372 mm)|
The Lotus-Cortina is a high-performance car, which was produced in the United Kingdom from 1963 to 1970 by Ford in collaboration with Lotus Cars. The original version, which was based on the Ford Cortina Mark 1, was promoted by Ford as the "Consul Cortina developed by Lotus", with "Consul" later being dropped from the name.The Mark 2 was based on the Ford Cortina Mark 2 and was marketed by Ford as the "Cortina Lotus".
The history of the Lotus Cortina began in 1961. Colin Chapman had been wishing to build his own engines for Lotus, mainly because the Coventry Climax unit was so expensive. Colin Chapman's chance came when he commissioned Harry Mundy (a close friend and designer of the Coventry Climax engine and technical editor for Autocar) to design a twin-cam version of the Ford Kent engine. Most of the development of the engine was done on the 997cc and 1,340cc bottom end, but in 1962 Ford released the 116E five bearing 1,499 cc engine and work centred on this. Keith Duckworth, from Cosworth, played an important part in tuning of the engine. The engine's first appearance was in 1962 at the Nürburgring in a Lotus 23 driven by Jim Clark. Almost as soon as the engine appeared in production cars (Lotus Elan), it was replaced with a larger capacity unit (82.55 mm bore to give 1,557 cc). This was in order to get the car closer to the 1.6 litre capacity class in motorsport.
Whilst the engine was being developed, Walter Hayes (Ford) asked Colin Chapman if he would fit the engine to 1,000 Ford saloons for Group 2 homologation. Chapman quickly accepted, although it must have been very busy in the Cheshunt plant, with the Elan about to be launched. The Type 28 or Lotus-Cortina or Cortina-Lotus (as Ford liked to call it) was duly launched. Ford supplied the 2-door Cortina bodyshells and took care of all the marketing and selling of the cars, whilst Lotus did all the mechanical and cosmetic changes. The major changes involved installing the 1,557 cc (105 bhp (78 kW; 106 PS)) engine, together with the same close-ratio gearbox as the Elan. The rear suspension was drastically altered and lightweight alloy panels were used for doors, bonnet and boot. Lightweight casings were fitted to gearbox and differential. All the Lotus factory cars were painted white with a green stripe (although Ford built some for racing in red, and one customer had a dark blue stripe due to being superstitious about green). The cars also received front quarter bumpers and round Lotus badges were fitted to rear wings and to the right side of the radiator panel (from the driver's position).
Interior modifications were limited to a centre console designed to accommodate the new gear lever position, different seats and the later style dashboard, featuring tachometer,speedometer, oil pressure, water temperature and fuel level gauges. A wood-rimmed steering wheel was fitted.
The suspension changes to the car were quite extensive; the car received shorter struts up front, forged track control arms and 5.5J by 13 steel wheel rims. The rear was even more radical with vertical coil spring/dampers replacing the leaf springs and two trailing arms with a A- bracket (which connected to the differential housing and brackets near the trailing arm pivots) sorting out axle location. To support this set-up, further braces were put behind the rear seat and from the rear wheelarch down to chassis in the boot. The stiffening braces meant that the spare wheel had to be moved from the standard Cortina's wheel well and was bolted to the left side of the boot floor. The battery was also relocated to the boot, behind the right wheelarch. Both of these changes made big improvements to overall weight distribution. Another improvement the Lotus Cortina gained was the new braking system (9.5 in (240 mm) front discs) which were built by brake specialist Girling. This system also was fitted to Cortina GT's but without a servo, which was fitted in the Lotus Cortina engine bay.
Initially, the engines were built by J. A Prestwich of Tottenham and then Villiers of Wolverhampton. In 1966, Lotus moved to Hethel in Norwich where they had their own engine building facilities. The Lotus Cortina used a 8.0 in (200 mm) diaphragm-spring clutch, whereas Ford fitted coil-spring clutches to the rest of the range. The remainder of the gearbox was identical to the Lotus Elan. This led to a few problems because although the ultra-close gear ratios were perfect for the race track or open road, the clutch was given a hard time in traffic. The ratios were later changed.
The early cars were very popular and earned some rave reviews; one magazine described the car as a tin-top version of a Lotus 7. It was 'THE car' for many enthusiasts who before had to settle for a Cortina GT or a Mini-Cooper and it also amazed a lot of the public who were used to overweight 'sports cars' like the Austin-Healey 3000. The launch was not perfect however, the car was too specialist for some Ford dealerships who did not understand the car; there are a few stories of incorrect parts being fitted at services. There were a few teething problems reported by the first batch of owners, (most of these problems show how quickly the car was developed) some of the engines were down on power, the gear ratios were too close and the worst problem was the differential housing coming away from the casing. This problem was mainly caused by the high loads put on the axle because of the A bracket it was an integral part of the rear suspension. This was made even worse by the fact any oil lost from the axle worked its way on to the bushes of the A bracket. There were 4 main updates made to the Mk1 Lotus during its production to solve some of these problems. The first change was a swap to a two-piece prop shaft and the lighter alloy transmission casing were changed for standard Ford items; this also included swapping the ultra close ratio gears for Cortina GT gear ratios, the main difference was 1st, 2nd and reverse were much higher ratios. from 1964, standard panels were used rather than the light alloy ones. Alloy items and ultra-close ratios coulds be specified when buying new cars.
The 2nd main change came in late 1964 when the entire Cortina range had a facelift which included a full width front grille and aeroflow outlets in the rear quarters because the Lotus Cortinas also gained Ford's new ventilation system which also included an update to the interior. The third and probably most important change came in mid-1965, when the Lotus rear suspension was changed for the leaf springs and radius arms of the Cortina GT. This replaced all the stiffening tubing as well. The last update also came in 1965 when the rear drums were swapped for self-adjusting items and also the famous 2000E gearbox ratios were used. These lowered 1st and reverse about halfway between the Cortina GT ratios and the ultra close-ratio box. All these changes made the cars less specialised but far more reliable and all the special parts were still available for competition as well as to members of the public.
The Lotus Cortina had by this time earned an impressive competition reputation. It was also being made in left hand drive when production finished around late 1966 and the Mk2 took over.
|Cortina Lotus Mk2|
|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
|Also called||Ford Cortina Twin Cam|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door saloon|
|Related||Ford Cortina Mark II|
|Engine||1557 cc straight-4|
|Wheelbase||249 cm (98.0 in)|
|Length||427 cm (168.1 in)|
|Width||165 cm (65.0 in)|
|Height||139 cm (54.7 in)|
Ford wanted to change a few things for the Mk2, the Mk1 had done all and more than they could expect in competition, but the public linked its competition wins with Lotus and its bad points with Ford. Ford still wanted to build a Mk2 Lotus and compete with it, but Lotus were moving from Cheshunt to Hethel so it was a bad time for them to build another model. Ford were also concerned with the unreliability of the Lotus built cars. So a decision was made at Ford that to continue with its competition drive and make the car more cost effective they would make the car at Dagenham themselves, alongside the other Cortinas. So the Mk2 had to be much easier to build than the Mk1 so that it could be made alongside Mk2 GT production, just with a different engine and suspension. The Mk2 took a while to appear, first appearing in 1967. The main difference was the choice of colours and the lack of a stripe, although most had them fitted at Ford dealers at extra cost. The only cosmetic changes made were a black front grille, 5.5J x 13 steel wheels and Lotus badges on rear wings and by the rear number plate. The badge on the front grille was an option at first. Unlike the Mk1, the Mk2 was also made in left hand drive from the start of production. The Mk2 Lotus Cortinas also gained an improved and more powerful (109 bhp (81 kW; 111 PS)) engine, which was formerly supplied as the special equipment engine option on Lotus Elan and the Lotus Cortina Mk1. The gearbox ratios remained 2000E ones but the car now used the Mk2 GT remote-control gearchange. The car also had a different final drive of 3.77:1 rather than 3.9:1. The Mk2 was a wider car than the Mk1, so although they looked the same, the steel wheels had a different offset so as not to upset the tracking, and radial tyres were now standard. Another attraction was the larger fuel tank. The spare wheel could now be mounted in its wheel well, but the battery remained in the boot to aid weight distribution.
The only real difference to the engine bay was the air cleaner mounted on top of the engine. The interior was almost identical to a GT. The Mk2 did exactly what Ford wanted, it was far more reliable whilst still quick enough to be used in competition, until it was replaced by the Escort Twin Cam. The car did receive a few updates, but none as urgent as the Mk1's. Only a few months after production started, the Lotus badge on the rear panel was cancelled and a new TWIN-CAM badge was fitted under the Cortina script on the boot lid. The new combined clock and centre console was fitted. In late 1968 the entire Mk2 range received some cosmetic changes; for the Lotus, this meant that the 4 dials on top of the dash were brought down and made part of the dash. An internal bonnet release and a more conventional mounting for the handbrake were also phased in. A new single-rail gearshift mechanism was used. The car stayed in production until 1970.
Two 4-door versions were supplied to the Mid-Anglia Constabulary for evaluation as use as a fast patrol and pursuit car by British Police forces. The trial never went beyond the two vehicles, which are both still in existence.
To homologate the car for Group 2, 1000 were required to be built in 1963, and the car was duly homologated in September 1963. In the same month, in the car's first outing, in the Oulton Park Gold Cup, the car finished 3rd and 4th behind two Ford Galaxies, but beat the 3.8-litre Jaguars which had been dominant in saloon car racing for so long. Soon Ford were running cars in Britain, Europe, and the USA, with Team Lotus running cars in Britain for Ford, and Alan Mann Racing running cars in Europe, also on behalf of Ford. Lotus-Cortinas were able to beat almost anything except the 7-litre V8 Ford Galaxies, and later, Ford Mustangs.
In 1964, a Lotus-Cortina leading around a bend with its inside front wheel in fresh air became a familiar sight, as the cars were set up with soft rear suspension and a hard front end. Jim Clark won the British Saloon Car Championship easily, in the USA, Jackie Stewart and Mike Beckwith won the Malboro 12-hour, and Alan Mann Racing also performed well in the European Touring Car Challenge, including a 1-2 victory in the 'Motor' Six Hour International Touring Car Race at Brands Hatch. A Boreham-built car also won its class, came 4th outright, and won the handicap section, in the 4000 mile 10-day Tour de France. Other Lotus-Cortina achievements included the Austrian Saloon Car Championship, the South African National Saloon Championship, the Swedish Ice Championship, and the Wills Six-Hour in New Zealand.
1965 saw the Lotus-Cortina winning regularly, the car being more competitive due to the increased reliability of the new leaf spring rear end. Driving for Alan Mann Racing, Sir John Whitmore dominated and won the European Touring Car Championship in KPU-392C, Jack Sears won his class in the British Saloon Car Championship (a Mustang won outright), Jackie Ickx won the Belgian Saloon Car Championship, and a Lotus-Cortina won the New Zealand Gold Star Saloon Car Championship. Other wins were the Nürburgring Six-Hour race, the Swedish National Track Championship, and the Snetterton 500.
In 1966, Team Lotus registered new cars for the British Saloon Car Championship, which was now open to Group 5 Special Touring Cars, as regulations had been changed. Fuel-injection and dry sumping were allowed, and with Lucas injection and tuning by BRM, the engines could produce 180 bhp (130 kW; 180 PS) at 7750 rpm, increasing their ability to stay with the Mustangs. The cars also had the McPherson struts replaced with coil-springs and shock absorbers and a revised wishbone geometry. They scored 8 class wins, many driven by Jim Clark. In the European Touring Car Championship, Sir John Whitmore pulled off another four wins, but that wasn't enough to give him the title, as Alfa Romeo had been doing their homework with the Giulia GTAs.
Lotus Cortina MK 1's are a consistent class winner in modern Historic Touring Car racing throughout the world. The fastest official recorded speed is 147 mph (237 km/h) at Mount Panorama Bathurst in Australia by Marc Ducquet. This speed of 147 mph is unlikely because of the gearing and rev range options available. For example a driver called 'Gelignite Jack Murrey" driving a Cortina GT500 (Australias answer to the Lotus Cortina produced to comply with the local build requirements to be able to be raced of 100 units - initial batch 122- as opposed to running Lotus Cortinas which would have been imported with a mimimum requirement of 250) built by and intended for Harry Firth in the 1965 Bathurst 500 was clocked at 118 mph down conrod straight using a 3.9 diff, lotus gearbox, large diameter (non radial) tyres and 7,900 rpm. For a lotus to do 147 mph it would have to be running non radials/low profile race tyres, a 3.9 diff and be able to rev to 10,000 rpm plus which does not sound plausible.
The Cortina is well known in the US for its competitiveness in the under 2000 cc class of the Trans Am Series.
Whilst the Lotus-Cortina is somewhat overshadowed by the success of the Ford Escort in rallying, it performed admirably in the mid-1960s, which might be surprising, given its reputation for unreliability. The first Lotus-Cortina to be rallied was a Lotus-Cortina, a GT with the Lotus engine, in the 1963 Spa-Sofia-Liege rally in September, just to try out the engine, and driven by Henry Taylor to 4th place. The first outing in a rally by a Lotus-Cortina proper was in the 1963 RAC Rally, campaigned again by Taylor, with co-driver Brian Melia. It finished 6th somehow, in spite of its A-bracket rear end needing constant attention. The A-bracket was persevered with by Vic Elford and David Seigle-Morris for the 1964 Tour de France Automobile, a 10 day, 4,000-mile (6,400 km) event, as it was run completely on sealed roads, unlike the rough RAC Rally. Their car came 4th outright in the Touring Car category, and first in the Handicap category, in a mix of one-hour sprints, hillclimbs, and mountain road rallying.
Still, the general dodginess of the A-bracket suspension meant that Ford decided to replace it with the more conventional GT rear suspension. This became available in June 1965, and while the car still seemed to be afflicted with bad luck, a few victories were racked up. Four of the newly updated cars competed in the Alpine rally of July 1965, and Vic Elford's car led outright, all the way. Well, until less than an hour from finishing, when a piece of the distributor fell out and delayed the car 26 minutes. All four cars retired from that year's RAC rally, which was severely snow-affected. The first works victory came in December 1965, when Roger Clark and Graham Robson won the Welsh International.
In 1966, Ford managed to homologate the car for Group 1, which requires 5000 cars to be built. In the Monte Carlo Rally, Roger Clark finished 4th, only to be disqualified, and then Elford finished 1st in the Rallye Sanremo (Rally of the Flowers), only to be disqualified as well. Elford came 2nd in the Tulip Rally. Bengt Söderström was named victor of the Acropolis Rally, after the 1st-placed Mini Cooper S was disqualified. New cars were used for the Coupe des Alpes (Alpine Rally), where Elford's engine blew up after leading, while Roger Clark finished second. Clark was always competitive, but suffered with unreliable cars, coming 3rd in the Canadian Shell 4000, 2nd in Greece, and 4th in Poland. The Lotus-Cortina finally proved itself with an outright win in the RAC rally. F1 World Champion Jim Clark crashed his (twice), but Söderström saw his through to a 13 minute victory, with Gunnar Palm. Other victories in 1966 were in the Geneva rally by Staepelaere, and by Canadian Paul MacLellan in the Shell 4000. A final win before the advent of the Mk. II was also pulled off by Soderstrom in the snowy Swedish Rally of February 1967.
วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 28 พฤศจิกายน พ.ศ. 2556
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||Open wheel|
|Engine||1098 cc Cosworth Mk.XI|
|Transmission||5-speed manual Hewland transmission|
The Lotus 27 was a Formula Junior version of the Lotus 25 Formula One car for the 1963 Formula Junior season. Its body was aluminum monocoque with steel bulkheads. It was originally designed with fibreglass sides which led to flexing problems, leading to them being replaced with aluminium.
The Team Lotus cars were run by Ron Harris; and Peter Arundell won the 1963 British championship after the initial flexing problems were solved.
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door coupe|
|Engine||Lotus TwinCam 1,557 cc (1.6 L) I4|
|Wheelbase||2,134 mm (84 in)|
|Length||3,683 mm (145 in)|
|Width||1,422 mm (56 in)|
|Height||1,156 mm (46 in)|
|Curb weight||688 kg (1,517 lb)|
Lotus Elan is the name of two convertible cars and one fixed head coupé produced by Lotus Cars. The original Type 26, 26RRacing version (of the S1 Elan), 36R Racing version (of the S2 Elan), 36 Fixed Head Coupe, 45 Drop Head Coupe, and the "Type 50" +2 Coupe, circa 1962 to 1975, are commonly known as the '60s Elans. The Type M100 from 1989 to 1995, is also commonly known as the 1990s Elan.
The original Elan was introduced in 1962 as a roadster, although an optional hardtop was offered in 1963 and a coupé version in 1965. The two-seat Lotus Elan replaced the elegant, but unreliable and expensive to produce Lotus Elite.
It was the first Lotus road car to use the now-famous steel
backbone chassis with a fibreglass
At 1,500 lb (680 kg), the Elan embodied the Colin Chapmanminimum weight design philosophy. Initial versions of the Elan were also available as a kit to be assembled by the customer. The Elan was technologically advanced with a DOHC 1557 cc engine, 4-wheel disc brakes, rack and pinion steering, and 4-wheel independent suspension. The "Lotus TwinCam" engine was based on Ford Kent Pre-Crossflow 4-cylinder 1498 cc engine, with a Harry Mundy-designed 2 valve alloy chain-driven twin-cam head. The rights to this design was later purchased by Ford, who renamed it to "Lotus-Ford Twin Cam". It would go on to be used in a number of Ford and Lotus production and racing models.
|Lotus Elan +2|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door 2+2-seater coupe|
|Engine||Lotus TwinCam 1,557 cc (1.6 L) I4|
|Transmission||4-speed manual all-synchromesh|
|Wheelbase||96 in (2,438 mm)|
|Length||169 in (4,293 mm)|
|Width||66 in (1,676 mm)|
|Height||47 in (1,194 mm)|
An Elan +2 was introduced in 1967 with a longer wheelbase and two more rear seats. The Elan +2 embodied the Lotus spirit: It was a fast and agile sport coupe. It combined the performance and reliability of the Elan "Coupe" with genuine 2+2 passenger comfort. Tested maximum power: 108-126 bhp (net) (depending on the model); top speed: 120 mph (190 km/h), 0–60 mph in 7.9 seconds, 0-100 mph 21.8 seconds. 5,200 Elans +2 were made: fewer than 1,200 of these cars remain in the roads today. Their relative rarity, beautiful lines, impressive performance and practicality are the main factors for the rising interest on these cars among collectors.
The Elan ceased production in 1973 and the Elan +2 in 1975, succeeded by Elite II and Lotus Eclat. An estimated total of 17,000 original Elans and Elans +2 were built. Because of its successful design and rigorous attention to cost control on the body, chassis, engine and the transmission, the Elan went on to become Lotus' first commercial success, reviving a company stretched thin by the more exotic and expensive to build Lotus Elite with fiberglass monocoque body/chassis and all-aluminium Coventry Climax engine; and enabled funding of the Lotus success in racing over the next ten years.
This generation of the two-seater Elan was famously driven by the character Emma Peel on the British television series The Avengers. In 2004, Sports Car International named the Elan number six on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. The original version of the car was designed by Ron Hickman,who also designed the first Lotus Europa as part of Lotus' GT40 project bid and made his fortune having designed the Black & Decker Workmate.
The original Elan is usually credited as being the design inspiration for the highly successful 1989 Mazda MX-5 (Mazda Miata in North America). Two Elans were intimately evaluated by Mazda in the process of designing the MX-5.
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door roadster|
|Engine||1,588 cc Isuzu 4XE1 I4|
1,588 cc Isuzu 4XE1-MT turbo I4
|Wheelbase||2,250 mm (88.6 in)|
|Length||3,803 mm (149.7 in)|
3,870 mm (152.2 in) (US)
|Width||1,734 mm (68.3 in)|
|Height||1,230–1,240 mm (48.4–48.8 in)|
|Curb weight||997 kg (2,198 lb) (NA)|
1,075–1,110 kg (2,370–2,447 lb) (Turbo)
The Lotus M100 Elan, launched in 1989, was a two-seater, convertible sports car designed by Lotus, with a reliable Japanese engine and manual transmission supplied by Isuzu, and built with the development and testing resources of General Motors. Around £35 million (about $55 million) was invested in its development, more than any other car in Lotus history. Its design, featuring a fibreglass composite body over a rigid steel backbone chassis, was true to Lotus founder Colin Chapman's original philosophy of achieving performance through low weight, and the name "Elan" connected the car with its 1960s ancestor, the original Lotus Elan.
In 1986 the purchase of Lotus by General Motors provided the financial backing to develop a new, small, affordable car in the same spirit as the original Elan (last built in December 1972). A development prototype, the M90 (later renamed the X100) had been built a few years earlier, using a fibreglass body designed by Oliver Winterbottom and a Toyota-supplied 1.6-litre engine and transmission. Lotus was hoping to sell the car through Toyota dealerships worldwide, badged as a Lotus Toyota, but the project never came to fruition and the prototype was shelved (although Lotus's collaboration with Toyota had some influence on the design of the Toyota MR2).
The idea of a small roadster powered by an outsourced engine remained, however, and in late 1986 Peter Stevens's design for the Type M100 was approved and work began by Lotus engineers to turn the clay styling buck into a car that could be built. This process was completed in just under three years, a remarkably short time from design to production car.
The M100 Elan was conceived as a mass-market car and in particular one that would appeal to US buyers. Consequently, Lotus put an enormous effort (for such a small firm) into testing the car; over a two-year period 19 crash cars and 42 development vehicles were built, logging nearly a million test miles in locations from Arizona to the Arctic. The Elan was driven at racing speeds for 24 hours around the track at Snetterton. Finally each new car was test-driven for around 30 miles (48 km) at Lotus's Hethel factory to check for any manufacturing defects before being shipped to dealers.
The choice of front-wheel drive is unusual for a sports car, but according to Lotus sales literature, "for a given vehicle weight, power and tyre size, a front wheel drive car was always faster over a given section of road. There were definite advantages in traction and controllability, and drawbacks such as torque steer, bump steer and steering kickback were not insurmountable." This was the only front-wheel-drive vehicle made by Lotus. Every model made since the M100 Elan, such as the Lotus Elise, has been rear-wheel drive.
The M100 Elan's cornering performance was undeniable (on release the Elan was described by Autocar magazine as "the quickest point to point car available"). Press reaction was not uniformly positive, as some reviewers found the handling too secure and predictable compared to a rear-wheel-drive car. However, the Elan's rigid chassis minimised roll through the corners and has led to its description as 'the finest front wheel drive [car] bar none'. Unlike the naturally aspirated version, the turbocharged SE received power steering as standard, as well as tyres with a higher ZR speed rating.
The M100 Elan used a 1,588 cc double overhead camshaft (DOHC) 16-valve engine, sourced from the Isuzu Gemini and extensively modified by Lotus (a third generation of this engine was later used in the Isuzu Impulse), which produced 162 horsepower (121 kW). 0–60 acceleration time was measured by Autocar and Motor magazine at 6.5 seconds, and a top speed of 137 mph (220 km/h) was recorded.
Significant differences in the Isuzu-Lotus engine from the original include a new exhaust system, re-routed intake plumbing for better thermodynamic efficiency, improved engine suspension, and major modifications to the engine control unit to improve torque and boost response. Almost all models featured an IHI turbocharger.
Two variants were available at launch, the 130 bhp (97 kW; 132 PS) Elan 1.6 (retailing at £17,850) and the 162 bhp (121 kW; 164 PS) Turbo SE (£19,850). Initial sales were disappointing, perhaps because its launch coincided with a major economic recession in the UK and USA, and perhaps also because it coincided with the cheaper Mazda MX-5 which was arguably similar in concept, though the MX-5 was quite intentionally nostalgic and old fashioned (apeing the original Elan), while the M100 was deliberately futuristic, modern and forward looking. The Elan was regarded as a good product in a bad market, but was also very expensive to make (the cost to design and produce the dashboard alone was more than the total cost of the Excel production line), and sales figures were too low to recoup its huge development costs. When Lotus was sold by GM to Bugatti, its new owners had no interest in continuing manufacture of the loss-making Elan.
Altogether 3,855 Elans were built between November 1989 and July 1992, including 129 normally aspirated (non-turbo) cars. 559 of them were sold in the US, featuring a 'stage 2 body' which had a different rear boot spoiler arrangement together with a lengthened nose to accommodate a USA-compliant crash structure and airbag, and 16-inch wheels (optional in most markets, standard in the U.S.) instead of 15-inch as on the UK model.
A limited edition of 800 Series 2 (S2) M100 Elans was released during the Romano Artioli era (produced June 1994–September 1995) when it was discovered that enough surplus engines were available to make this possible. According to Autocar magazine, the S2 addressed some of the concerns over handling, but power was reduced to 155 bhp (116 kW; 157 PS) and the 0–60 acceleration time increased to 7.5 seconds, due to the legislative requirement to fit a catalytic converter in all markets. The S2s have very similar performance to the USA vehicles, having an identical engine management system calibration and a slightly lower overall vehicle weight.
|Kia Elan / Galloper Elan|
|Manufacturer||Hyundai Precision & Industry Company Limited (HDPIC)|
|Also called||Galloper Elan (Arabian Peninsula)|
Kia Elan (South Korea)
|Assembly||Daejeon, South Korea|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door convertible/roadster|
After the final production run of the Elan in 1995, Kia Motors bought all the relevant license of Elan from Lotus to manufacture their own version. Outwardly, the Kia version looks almost identical to the original. The most obvious difference is the different taillights, which is of own design of Kia Elan, as the original Lotus version taillights was of Renault Alpine's. From 1996 to 1999, Hyundai Precision & Industry Company Limited (HDPIC) built the car as the Kia Elan for the Korean market, using a 151 hp (113 kW) 1.8 L T8D engine instead of the Isuzu-made 1.6. On Arabian Peninsula markets it was sold as the Galloper Elan.
|Body and chassis|
The new Lotus Elan was announced at the 2010 Paris Motor Show. It was hoped to be in production by 2013, but the company pushed it back for a 2017 release, as a way to further develop the current Evora. It will feature a 4.0-litre V6 engine and will weigh roughly 1,295 kg (2,855 lb) and will also feature optional hybrid technology with KERS which will be across the whole new Lotus range. It will mainly be aimed at buyers of the Porsche 911 and Aston Martin V8 Vantage.